Hedera's EVM Equivalence: Goals and Exceptions

Hedera aims to achieve Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) equivalence to enhance the programmability and adoption of the network. This page outlines Hedera's EVM equivalence goals and highlights the key differences and exceptions between Hedera and Ethereum.

Hedera's EVM Equivalence Goals

Hedera's EVM equivalence strategy is designed to empower developers by facilitating the execution of EVM smart contracts more rapidly and cost-effectively while ensuring seamless integration of Hedera’s native services. The key goals include:

Robust Application Programmability

Hedera aims to enable a wider range of application programmability without sacrificing its unique value. This means allowing developers to build a diverse range of applications on the Hedera network, from decentralized finance (DeFi) applications to supply chain solutions, while still benefiting from the unique features of Hedera, such as its speed, security, and fairness.

Seamless Integration

Hedera plans to integrate its native services with the EVM seamlessly. This will allow developers to execute smart contracts more rapidly and cost-effectively. It will also make it easier for developers to use Hedera's services, as they can use the same tools and languages they are already familiar with from the Ethereum ecosystem.

Leverage Existing Expertise

Hedera's strategy involves leveraging the HyperLedger Besu EVM client, which allows developers to capitalize on their existing Solidity expertise. This means that developers who are already familiar with Solidity and the EVM can easily transition to developing on Hedera, taking advantage of its unique strengths such as faster transactions, low and fixed fees, fair transaction ordering, immediate finality, and heightened security.

Smooth Transition

Hedera aims to provide a seamless transition for developers already working with EVM-based platforms. This means making it easy for developers to move their existing applications, smart contracts, and other digital assets to the Hedera network. This goal is aimed at encouraging the adoption of the Hedera network by reducing the barriers to entry for developers.

Support for EVM Tools

Hedera plans to support familiar EVM tools, libraries, and environments. This includes providing support for popular development environments like Truffle and HardHat, as well as libraries like Web3js and EthersJS. The network also supports additional tools like MetaMask, The Graph, and Remix. This goal is aimed at making it easier for developers to build on Hedera, as they can use the same tools they are already familiar with from the Ethereum ecosystem.

Community Engagement

Hedera encourages developers to contribute to its EVM development and join the community discussions in the official Hedera Discord. This goal is aimed at fostering a vibrant and engaged developer community, which is crucial for the long-term success and sustainability of the Hedera network.
🔔 Detailed blog post of Hedera's EVM Equivalence strategy.

Key Differences and Exceptions between Hedera and Ethereum

While Hedera aims to achieve EVM equivalence, there are several exceptions and key differences to be aware of.

Transaction and Network Differences

Transaction Size Limit
No limit
API Endpoints
Consensus and mirror nodes do not provide Ethereum RPC API endpoints
Ethereum RPC API endpoints available
Data Return on Static Calls
Data retrieval must be done through the relay
Data returned directly
Query Costs
Not free, can use mirror node for free queries
Free read-only calls
Transaction Throttling
Transactions pending until future submission
No mempools
Mempools available

Authorization and Account Differences

Authorization Signatures
Used for transaction authorization outside of smart contracts
Typically used within smart contracts
Special System Accounts
Available with unique properties
Not available
Non-ECDSA Accounts
Non-ECDSA accounts (such as ED or multi -key) are supported by Hedera but not supported on Ethereum.
ECDSA Accounts are fully compatible
Fully compatible
Account Deletion
Not possible

Token and Fee Differences

Native Tokens
Supports native tokens in addition to ERC-20 and ERC-721 token standards
All ERC token standards but primarily ERC-20 and ERC-721 tokens.
Contract Lifecycle
Contract entities can expire, rent fees may apply
No expiration or rent fees
Gas Fees
Charges at least 80% of gas fees regardless of transaction outcome
Gas fees depend on transaction outcome
Fee Structure
Single gas price
Token Association*
No concept of token association
*Note: Token Association only applies to native HTS tokens and does not affect ERC-20/721 tokens.

Keys and Other Differences

Keys for Token Functionality
Keys control access to token functionality (KYC, FREEZE, WIPE, supply, fee, and PAUSE)
No equivalent native functionality
Precheck Failures
Typically single failure reason
Requires communication with both consensus and mirror nodes
Direct communication with nodes
HBAR Decimal Precision
Consistent 18 point decimal precision